We at Art/Tapes/22 think that video is at the forefront in the advanced transformation of the system of relations between the arts. Its profound structural immediacy will no-doubt launch it towards a future vital role (in terms of a reorganization that involves both art making and communication). In order to bring our efforts to full fruition, its diffusion needs to extend beyond the existing circuit of galleries and museums.

Only in this way we might be able to create a system of reciprocal cultural exchange “open-ended”…Thanks to its nature, in effect, the medium of video is able to unify art and the other disciplines, by acting as a catalyst of the current transformation of ideas and energies into more general forms of expression. [1]

Between 1972 and 1976, a venue on the ground floor in Via Riccasoli 22, in Florence, acted as the main setting for one of the key moments that brought about the video art in Italy. At that very address, Maria Gloria Bicocchi and her husband Giancarlo founded art/tapes/22, the center for the moving video, which started in Florence, but then followed the couple as they were traveling to other residences, in Santa Teresa, near Follonica, and Sant’Ippolito, in the Volterra countryside, reaching (complete with tapes and equipment) artists’ studio, galleries and cultural centres in Italy and abroad.

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During its short existence, art/tapes/22 gathered important names of the artistic scene in Italy including, among other, Vincenzo Agnetti, Alighiero Boetti, Sandro Chia, Giuseppe Chiari, Gino De Dominicis, Jannis Kounellis, all artists coming from the experience of Conceptual art and Arte Povera, musicians, and composers all invited by Maria Gloria Bicocchi and her collaborators. These artists were either profoundly engaged with, even seduced by the then rising medium of the analog video, or they just experimented with it showing a certain care-free approach as a tool made to document actions and performances or to be incorporated with the other languages they were using in that particular moment.

This constitute just an intermediate phase of the use of the analog audiovisual, as it was seen as a musical instrument that could be played, a painting bush to leave a trace an electronic memory of otherwise ephemeral events. Foreign artists, mostly from the United States, were also invited to the center. For them video was already a fully accepted autonomous aesthetic language whose qualities were being explored. Among these artists were Vito Acconci, Douglas Davis, Frank Gillette, Taka Ito (Takahito) Iimura, Joan Jonas, Charlemagne Palestine and Bill Viola, who acted as the technical director of the center from 1974 to 1976.

Apart from being a production center, art/tapes/22 was an archive, a documentation and distribution center for artists like Marina Abramovich, Dan Graham, David Hall, Alvin Lucier, Antoni Muntadas, Dennis Oppenheim, Steina and Woody Vasulka. Maria Gloria Bicocchi and her collaborators took care of the dissemination of the video culture following different modalities and forms, being capable to deal with the ideas of artists who came form backgrounds and experiences very different, being able to interweave connections and collaborations amidst the magma of the nascent practice of video collecting and the video market.

A multiform and dynamic cultural experience, art/tapes/22 was a fluid place because it was based on the relationships that Maria Gloria Bicocchi was able to establish with the most interesting actors of the artistic and cultural scene of that moment in merely four years. The places and houses she inhabited were always narrated through the memory of those people lived with her, through the sounds that filled those spaces, the fragments of artworks on the walls, the objects that the artists would found in her house and then would inevitably end up in their very artworks.

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One of the peculiarity of this center was that it was represented more by a group of people constantly at work than by the concreteness of the physical space, which was there, but never as an official institution. The staff, composed by Alberto Pirelli, sound technician, and Carmine Fornari, expert cameraman, Lesley Pinnock, assistant, joined by Bill Viola in 1974, epitomizes a mode of production that is completely different from any other space of video production established in that period.

In fact, the authors would arrive in art/tapes/22 (in some cases, as already mentioned it is the laboratory that moved to them) and would start discussing, elaborating projects, seeking solutions or improvising in from of the video camera, always together with Maria Gloria Bicocchi and her collaborators. This was a true collaborative process of creation that was neither commissioned nor a form of patronage, but a system of working together. Even economically speaking, this activity envisioned participation both in terms of labor and production, so much so that none of the artists produced by art/tapes/22 has never received any compensation except for exhibition events.

Being this space non-delimitable, but fluid and mobile, defined more by the human relationships unfolding rather than by a consolidated productive structure, art/tapes/22 was one of the few centers for the production of video in Italy able to breed an artistic scene that had been inexistent in the country, or in the area surrounding Florence, until a few years before.

As David A. Ross , the well known American critic and curator specialized in video art reminisces, between the end of 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s the route that video art went through in order to free itself from the “terrible parent” of TV meant the necessity to create not only circuits and, even before them, centers that effectively enabled artists to engage in modes of productions independent from broadcasting. [2] In the United States, the cradle of video art for at least its first 20 years, this approach was possible thanks to federal funds that supported and then progressively institutionalized the emergence of a number of independent organizations often run by politically radical individuals.

Later on, the “public” component of video art production was performed in the creative labs existing within many public television stations. [3] In addition to the fundamental role played by public institutions, the private sector contributed to the creation of distribution and dissemination channels. [4]

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In Europe, the situation was much more fragmented, even dispersed –the UK funded its artists through the British Film Institute e del British Council; The French government and the Goethe Institut in Germany funded and promoted through exhibitions artists who were primarily living abroad.

In Italy, the Centro Video Arte del Palazzo dei Diamanti di Ferrara [5], founded in 1972 by Lola Bonora who directed it until 1994, constituted the only public institution dedicated to video art. With this exception, the video art in Italy emerged thanks to a few pioneers, who defies the total lack of interest of the major institutions: in addition to the already mentioned Maria Gloria Bicocchi, Luciano Giaccari founded Studio 970/2 in 1967 in Varese, and Paolo and Gabriella Cardazzo, from Galleria Cavallino, take interest in video starting in 1972.

Cosetta Saba points out how the socio-economical aspects inherent in the production of video art are always indissolubly linked to social and cultural consumerism. Consumerism generates a problem of “selective survival”: “ the social and cultural dimension of consumerism appears to unfold at two levels : the first one is observable in the process (in progress) regarding the productive choice (driven by financial investments) and the current historical contingency; the second one can be found in the choice of re-actualization passing through the restauration practices (and thus through some financial support).” [6]

The story of art/tapes/22 as a production center terminates because of the lack of sustainability of the project, due to the complete absence of institutional attention and the inexistence of any video art market or collecting practice. In 1976 Maria Gloria and Giancarlo Bicocchi decided to donate the fund consisting of 129 videotapes they had independently produced and distributed to the ASAC Archivio Storico delle Arti Contemporanee – La Biennale di Venezia. This has facilitated the gathering of these artworks into a historically coherent corpus.

However, consumerism has affected the fund in a different way: with the exception of the videotapes coming from the first donation, the fund has been subject to such mismanagement and oblivion that in some cases some works might run serious risks of being lost forever due to the particular obsolescence of the material.

On the past May, during a three days gathering in Follonica curated by Anna Mazzanti and dedicated to art/tapes/22, together with a group of artists, curators and scholars, Maria Gloria Bicocchi, proposed a petition to ASAC to request the conservation and the re-actualization of the fund.

Over thirty years of oblivion in cultural politics no-doubt stand out as one of the most painful episodes that testify to an inability of our country to recognize electronic audio-video as part of our cultural heritage. The alarm bell that Maria Gloria Bicocchi and many other authors who made the experience of art/tapes/22 possible have sounded is more than reasonable.

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Over thirty years of oblivion in cultural politics no-doubt stand out as one of the most painful episodes that testify to an inability of our country to recognize electronic audio-video as part of our cultural heritage. The alarm bell that Maria Gloria Bicocchi and many other authors who made the experience of art/tapes/22 possible have sounded is more than reasonable.

It is surprising, however, that in the petition and in the interviews the work of preservation and restauration of the Laboratori CREA and La Camera Ottica dell’Università degli Studi di Udine (commissioned by ASAC) [7] are never explicitly mentioned. This intervention, realized in 2006, certainly does not satisfy entirely the work required to recuperate and re-valorize the quality that the well-deserving fund, but it is already an important step forward: a genealogy has been reconstructed in order to identify the number of copies and the original matrices in order to start a census of the fund and in order to be able to compare the different tapes; a historical documentation around the corpus has been initiated,

together with the production of new documents (sucha s interviews, questionnaires, conversations); a diagnostics of the state of conservation of the original material as well as and a series of interventions aiming at its conservation was started; a series of intermediary copies has been realized to facilitate the access to the works for consultation in different formats.

The important initiative wanted by ASAC does not solve issues related to the effective access to the material preserved and related to the politics of valorization, dissemination and re-actualization of the corpus , all necessary conditions to bring back the “plural history” of the art/tapes/22, [8] to locate it in the present, to spark dialogue and correspondence between scholars and critics from different generations.

If the issues related to the destiny of the corpus constitute a much interesting topic that will be studied throughout in Digimag in the future, we’d like to first present an interview to Maria Gloria Bicocchi, from a video dialogue realized by Laura Cherubini, an educator, critic, and curator, and directed by Mario Gorni, founder of the centre for the contemporary arts Careof in Milano. The full version of this document can be watched at the DOCVA (Documentation Center for Visual Arts, Fabbrica del Vapore Milano, http://www.careof.org). A big thanks to the authors for having allowed this publication.

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Laura Cherubini: how did you decide to create art/tapes/22?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: I had heard of the Video-Gallery of Garry Shum [9], and I was very fascinated by it. I have always hated the idea of selling and buying, I don’t like to work beforehand, I like to work with the artists, to create something with them, and thus to work to do this, not to sell a painting or anything else. Giancarlo and I were new to this world. At the time we were living in Florence with our two children in 22 Ricasoli street.

It happened by chance, you know, life is full of chances, all you have to do is to acknowledge them. on the floor just below ours there was an empty store that once sold horrible children’s clothes. I decided to rent it. it was an huge space, with a small court at the back and a tiny room in the court that I turned into a room to host the artists.

Mario Gorni: How about production? How did you do it?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: We bought some professional ½ inch cameras from a store in Florence: a very heavy portapack, too heavy to hold on your shoulders and a steady camera, suitable for the studio. We would do the editing with a drawing crayon: incredible adventures. Then we bought a Revox, which was practically useless. However, Alberto Pirelli, who had an incredible mania for music had said: “we absolutely need a Revox!” [10].

Laura Cherubini: How did you choose your collaborators?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: I visited the Galleria Schema of Alberto Moretti. There were some very young guys from Puglia who were in Florence to study at the University. I asked them: “ do you know anything about videotape?” and they replied: “no, but I am really intrigued I could gladly learn if I am let to.” They came to us and in a few days they traveled to Rome to meet Kounellis, at Gino’s (De Dominicis, n.d.a.). Everybody told them: “ I bet Kounellis won’t even see you.” However, I contacted him and he called me back.

I remember very well that he had a fantastic artwork on the ground with some arrows and he was walking on it; there was also a parrot there and was calling “Kounellis, Kounellis”. The whole place was full of artworks and fragments…this was his first house downtown Rome, its windows facing an internal court that looked very suburban, beautiful! I remember a window that was falling apart. It was open on the grey walls, and you could see some splintered chairs outside. Gianni smoked, his coffee…. Wonderful. After three days he came to Florence.

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Laura Cherubini: Which was the first video you have ever produced?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: With Giuseppe Chiari, who was a friend. The title of the video was The Sound (Il Suono) [11], beautiful. Soon after we went to visit him with Vincenzo Agnetti and we did the one about numbers, the one in which he speaks using numbers instead of words…he is rumbling (in Italian the proverb translates literally as “he gives the numbers”) [12]. We used to have meals at his place on top of bicycle seats and we would sleep in sleeping bags, we didn’t have much money and what we had we would use to make videos. We purchased a yellow Transit van, you know, with five kids we needed one anyway; we would travel with Alberto Pirelli and Nuccio Fornari and we would sleep on the road, in the van.

Mario Gorni: does this mean that not all the videos were produced in the old children’s store?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: some of them. Sone, as in the case of Agnetti, were shot directly in the studios of the artists. In addition, before we took possession of the store we shot many videos at my place: I would send the kids outside, and I would empty the living room. Many videos were made there.

Mario Gorni: Did you agree with the artist to do a certain work that he had proposed or to realize an initial idea?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: To a certain extent. With Agnetti, for instance, we even had a blueprint. For the rest of them there was no project, like with Jannis (Kounellis) [13]: he came to us bringing the golden lips [14] and the mask of Apollo. [15]

Mario Gorni: Does this mean that the video was realized and thought of directly in the studio or wherever you happened to be shooting?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: Exactly. Then I went to Paris with two videos by Kounellis and Chiari, hosted by Lucio Amelio for the 1974 Basel’s fair. I brought with me all the video equipment, with very heavy bags. On the night of the opening, while we were installing the stand, I see a slightly chubby lady sitting on a wooden chest. She was watching my videos. After a while she asked me:” why do you make videos?” we chatted a bit. Then she goes: “ with whom would you like to make a video?” I reply: “ I would like to make it with Vito Acconci”….and she says: “He’s one of my artists, my name is Ileana Sonnabend“.

I met her again for dinner with her husband Michael and Leo (Castelli). She invited me to Paris to have a contract signed, a lawyer was in attendance. At the end we signed a gentelman agreement that stipulated that for five years, I could shoot videos with their artists, but I had to pay for the production. After 5 years all the videos would belong to them. we didn’t see those 5 years passing, because the experience of art/tapes/22 ended before. But this allowed me to start working with Acconci, who did 5 videos with me. [16]. He remained with us for many months.

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Mario Gorni: What kind of technical support did you have for the production?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: There were only a few people who provided real technical support since the beginning, like Nuccio Fornari and Alberto Pirelli. Six months-one year after, after Paris, I went to New York to meet Ileana and Leo Castelli. They represented two enterprises that wanted me as a partner. There, I met David Ross and Bill Viola who was with him.

I spent one month there with them for a series of events and projects. One night during dinner David came out with a proposal: “Bill has just finished his degree at Syracuse University and he needs to build some experience, would you want to take him with you? he was nineteen or twenty, he came and at the beginning he slept in the same room as Stefano, my son. He stayed for two years, from 1974 to 1976. A terrific experience.

Laura Cherubini: did he start making videos as soon as he settled there or did he wait a little?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: right away. Whenever he has some spare time. he was a great worker, incredible, timely, infaticable and very precise. During his free time he would make videos and relax: he would stay in his isolated room, which was his hermitage, where he would sit in the lotus position, 2 halp ping pong balls on his eyes, his headphones to filter out all the noise. This is how he relaxed

Mario Gorni: What about financial support?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: Zero, my husband was the only one who was able and willing to support the project and he put every resource into this. We had no revenue.

Laura Cherubini: You purchased the machines, hosted the assistants and the technicians, invited the artists. And then, I remember, when the artists were staying at your place, they had a wonderful time.

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: Yes, to host the artists was like been in a big family, we were all friends. I took care of everything, even the restaurant, we would eat at my place or at a restaurant nearby where we had an open tab which Giancarlo would pay for. Then at a certain point we were submerged by debt. Because we had no revenue. We did many exhibitions in 1974 in Brussels, Paris…

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Laura Cherubini: Because that year marks the official rise of the video…

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: Yes, in that occasion we felt very proud because we could even pay a minimum fee to the artists. They have never got one penny from me except when we had an exhibition, because we were doing all the labor. I donated the whole fund to the Biennale so I didn’t have to separate the videos, although to sell them separately would have been much more lucrative. I wanted to respect the corpus. When I handed in the videos to the Biennale, they were accompanied by full documentation: a dossier, the reviews of the works with the references in the magazines, many photocopied from the original.

Quite a bundle of documents accompanied every single video. When we handed in the material I recommended that they did not separate the videos from the texts. ASAC had a different method though. The documents related to the videos were all catalogued using periodicals, so that now it is impossible to go back to the literature, there is nothing left! My videos at the Biennale have no longer any reference. Teher was an incredible amount of documents. This is highly fructrating. Anyhow, at a certain point I realized that there was a debt of sixty millions of lire and the bank asked Giancarlo a bank guarantee. At that point I said enough.

Mario Gorni: Any relationship with Television? Any possibility to do any screening at RAI?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: Roberto Faenza came often to visit us. He planned to create a cable television with artists programs, a sort of telestreet. The goal was to show viewers something alternative to the usual channel. We were not able to do anything. It was a terrifying period, people had no idea what neither video art, nor the medium itself was. Beyond art, there were no TV channels for anything else: they hadn’t understood that the world can actually express itself through these instruments.

To go back to art/tapes/22, what was missing was a person able to manage it economically. Giancarlo was always there both financially and humanly but, let’s face it, he was never an administrator. Neither of us were capable enough. Then there was no person to take care of the commercial side, the sales. We were doing everything with a great enthusiasm, emotion, we were working with the artists, but we lacked in other fields.

In 2008, there was a wonderful exhibition at the Univeristy Art Museum in Long Beach [17]. I arrived there and they had reconstructed the whole art/tapes/22 with the installations of Daniel Buren [18]. This was the most joyous moment! I felt like Kossuth because my writings had been screen-printed on white walls. This was a beautiful exhibition: you have no idea how I was welcomed…so many students and the Getty Research Institute had published a book in English [19]. I am not saying this to brag about it, but to point out that these things don’t happen in Italy. When I was working it was even worse. Florence has never noticed video. Maybe those at the Gallery Schema . But sure they are the only one.

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Laura Cherubini: Did Base [20] exist already?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: Yes, they were very faithful. But they were the five usual suspects. We would move from art/tapes/22 to Schema to Area. It was always us! These were practically private gatherings. Do you remember when I was organizing dinners outside of the gallery Area by Bruno Corallo and Michele Guidulli? The gallery was a space that I had managed for a couple of months during which we exhibited a bit of graphics and I had already started with a bit of video. Then Corallo e Guidulli took it and it became a very politicized space. There was a trattoria, Poldo, in Salterelli Square, beside the space.

Every Wednesday it remained open for us. All the people passing by Florence would stop there. On Wednesday there would be many openings. We would stay all there, in the square, with our glasses, eating at the little tables…nobody asked who would pay the bill. It was Giancarlo. But it’s ok, because it has engendered things that go well beyond a simple dinner, things that can’t be measured with money: friendship, artworks, the desire to consider new ideas.. the latter is an artwork and you take it with you.

Mario Gorni: what about public funding?

Maria Gloria Bicocchi: we inquired at the city of Florence, but they never received anything, they never even replied to my inqiries. At a certain point, I wrote to Carlo Ripa di Meana, describing to him what we had created. 3/4 months after I receive a phone call: “ I am Ripa di Meana, I am in Florence “. I met him, with the architect Vittorio Gregotti, and they cam eto visit the studio. We started a process to transfer the corpus to them that lasted one year because they didn’t know whether to accept or not, or whether this was an interesting collection….

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After infinite meetings and time we received a phone call to announce us that they had decided to accept. This is how I transferred the fund to the Biennale. We sold the equipment to a small television in Pistoia. Giving everything away was a very sad moment for me. Terrible. I will never forget the sensation of emptiness I felt. It was 1976.

Procida, September 7, 2010


M. G. Bicocchi, A. Hutchison, A. Bonito Oliva, D. A. Ross, B. Viola, art/tapes/22, UAM Publication, 2009

M. G. Bicocchi, Tra Firenze e Santa Teresa dentro le quinte dell’arte (’73/’87) art/tapes/22, Ed. Cavallino, Venezia, 2003

M. G. Bicocchi, (a cura di), American in Florence, Europeans in Florence, catalogo, Firenze, 1974

S. Bordini, Le molte dimore. La videoarte in Italia negli anni Settanta. Un linguaggio meticcio, in La coscienza luccicante, dalla videoarte all’arte interattiva, catalogo, P. Sega Serra Zanetti e M. G. Tolomeo, (a cura di) Roma, 1998, disponibile anche http://www.laboratorioeurisko.it/dimore.html

S. Bordini, Videoarte & Arte, Tracce per una storia, Roma, Lithos, 1995

V. Collavini, Amnesie italiane. Lo strano caso di art/tapes/22, in Silvia Bordini, (a cura di), Video art in Italia, in ‘Ricerche di storia dell’arte’, 88, 2006, pp.25-38

E. L. Francalanci, Videotapes (art/tapes/22), catalogo della mostra 809, Cavallino, Venezia 1975

S. Fulvio, (a cura di), Gli art/tapes dell’Asac, Venezia, 1977

C. G. Saba, (a cura di), Arte in videotape. art/tapes/22, collezione ASAC – La Biennale di Venezia. Conservazione restauro valorizzazione, ASAC Biennale di Venezia/Silvana Editoriale, Venezia, 2007

C. G. Saba, Autour de art/tapes/22. Penser la préservation de la bande vidéo. Un introduction, in “Cinéma & Cie. International Film Studies Journal”, 8, “Cinéma et art contemporain/Cinema and contemporary art”, Fall 2006, pp. 160-169

F. Salvatori, (a cura di), Gli art/tapes dell’ASAC, Ca’ Corner della Regina, catalogo della mostra a cura di M. G. Bicocchi, La Biennale di Venezia, ASAC, Venezia, 1977

J. P. Trefois, Art video: retrospettive e prospettive, 50 tappe nella storia dell’arte video, La Biennale di Venezia, catalogo, L’immagine elettronica, Bologna, 1983

V. Valentini, (a cura di), Cominciamenti. Gerry Shum, Art/Tapes 22, Lafontaine, Pirri, Eitetsu Hayashi, De Luca, Roma, 1988


[1]Americans in Florence: Europeans in Florence, catalogo della mostra, Long Beach Museum of art, California 1974, in V. Valentini, (a cura di), Cominciamenti. Gerry Shum, Art/Tapes 22, Lafontaine, Pirri, Eitetsu Hayashi, De Luca, Roma, 1988, pag 85,

[2] – D. A. Ross, art/tapes/22, in M. G. Bicocchi, Tra Firenze e Santa Teresa dentro le quinte dell’arte (’73/’87) art/tapes/22, Ed. Cavallino, Venezia, 2003

[3] – Hill C., Attention! Production! Audience!: Performing Video in its First Decade 1968-1980, 1995, in Archivio Experimental Tv Center, http://www.experimentaltvcenter.org/history/pdf/hillattention.pdf

[4] – David Ross ricorda in particolare il lavoro svolto in questo senso dal mercante Howard Wise

[5] – Vedi L. Magri, (a cura di), Centro Video Arte Ferrara 1974-94, Ferrara, 1995

[6] – C.G. Saba, Introduzione. La Memoria delle immagini: art/tapes/22. Restauro e “riattualizzazione”, in C. G. Saba, (a cura di), Arte in videotape. art/tapes/22, collezione ASAC – La Biennale di Venezia. Conservazione restauro valorizzazione, ASAC Biennale di Venezia/Silvana Editoriale, Venezia, 2007, pp 22-73, nota 6 pag 67

[7] – Per approfondimenti sulle problematiche di restauro e descrizione del protocollo elaborato vedi A. Bordina, S. Venturini, Preservare la videoarte: il fondo art/tapes/22 dell’ASAC – La Biennale di Venezia, in C. G. Saba, (a cura di), Arte in videotape. art/tapes/22, collezione ASAC – La Biennale di Venezia. Conservazione restauro valorizzazione, ASAC Biennale di Venezia/Silvana Editoriale, Venezia, 2007, pp 194-213

[8] – Ivi nota 6, pag 25

[9] – Gerry Shum fonda nel 1969 la Fersenh-Galerie Berlin, trasferita nel 1971 a Düsseldorf con il nome di Video-galleria

[10] – Per lista dettagliata attrezzature utilizzate dal laboratorio vedi: C.G. Saba, Introduzione. La Memoria delle immagini: art/tapes/22. Restauro e “riattualizzazione”, in C. G. Saba, (a cura di), Arte in videotape. art/tapes/22, collezione ASAC – La Biennale di Venezia. Conservazione restauro valorizzazione, ASAC Biennale di Venezia/Silvana Editoriale, Venezia, 2007, nota 31 pag 69

[11] – Giuseppe Chiari, Il suono, 1974, 16’, b/n, mono, produzione art/tapes/22

[12] – Vincenzo Agnetti, Documentario Nº 2, 1973, 8’, b/n, mono, produzione art/tapes/22

[13] – Jannis Kounellis realizza con art/tapes/22 il video No title, 1973, 25’, b/n, mono

[14]Nel 1972, durante una mostra alla newyorkese Galleria Sonnabend, l’artista si chiude la bocca con un calco in oro

[15] – La maschera, copia del viso dell’Apollo del Belvedere, è utilizzata da Kounellis nell’installazione performance Apollo, 1973

[16] – I video realizzati da Vito Acconci a Firenze sono: Come Back, 1973, 33’ 24’’, b/n, mono; Full circle, 1973, 33’ 24’’, b/n, mono; Indirect Approches, 1973, 32’ 49’’, b/n, mono, prodotto in colaborazione con Castelli-Sonnabend Video Film Corporation; Theme Song, 1973, 33’ 19’’, b/n, mono.

[17]art/tapes/22, a cura di Alice Hutchison, 04/09/2008-09/10/2008, University Art Museum (UAM), Long Beach, Los Angeles. Catalogo: M. G. Bicocchi, A. Hutchison, A. Bonito Oliva, D. A. Ross, Bi. Viola, art/tapes/22, , UAM Publication, 2009

[18] – Daniel Buren, Vidéo-souvenir, “Recouvrant/Effaçant”, 1974, video installazione

[19] – Catalogo della mosra, nota 16

[20] – Videobase

[21] – Mostra itinerante (Italia, Stati Uniti, Jugoslavia, Olanda) organizzata nel 1974 da art/taoes/22. Catalogo: M. G. Bicocchi, (a cura di), American in Florence, Europeans in Florence, Firenze, 1974